The top court in Massachusetts has ruled in favor of an employee who was fired for using medical marijuana recommended by her doctor. After offering Barbuto the job, an ASM representative left her a message telling her that she was required to take a mandatory drug test.
Barbuto told the supervisor that she would test positive for marijuana, explaining that she suffers from Crohn's disease, a debilitating gastrointestinal condition.
She went on to explain that she was a qualifying medical marijuana cardholder under Massachusetts law and that her physician had provided her with a written certification that allowed her to use marijuana for medicinal purposes. Barbuto went on to explain that as a result of her Crohn's disease, and her irritable bowel syndrome, she has "little or no appetite," and finds it difficult to maintain a healthy weight. She said using marijuana two or three times a week after work had helped her gain fifteen pounds and maintain a healthy weight.
She assured her supervisor that she did not use marijuana daily and would not consume it before work or at work. In response, the supervisor told Barbuto that her medicinal use of marijuana "should not be a problem," but that he would confirm this with others at ASM.
The supervisor later telephoned Barbuto and confirmed that her lawful medical use of marijuana would not be an issue with the company.
On September 5,Barbuto was subject to a mandatory urine drug test. A few days later she went to an ASM training program, where she was given a uniform and assigned a supermarket location where she would promote the products. On September 12th Barbuto completed her first day of work, but that evening ASM's Human Resources representative terminated her for testing positive for marijuana. The HR representative told Barbuto that ASM did not care if Barbuto used marijuana to treat her medical condition because "we follow federal law, not state law.
Barbuto filed a verified charge of discrimination against ASM and the HR representative with the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination, and later filed suit in the Massachusetts Superior Court, alleging handicap discrimination under Massachusetts law, a private right of action under the Massachusetts Medical Marijuana Act and various other state law claims which were dismissed, except for an invasion of privacy claim. Barbuto then appealed directly to the Massachusetts Supreme Court.
The issue on appeal is whether a qualifying patient who has been terminated from her employment because she tested positive for marijuana as a result of her lawful medical use of marijuana has a civil remedy against her employer.
We conclude that the plaintiff may seek a remedy through claims of handicap discrimination in violation of G. We also conclude that there is no implied statutory private cause of action under the medical marijuana act and that the plaintiff has failed to state a claim for wrongful termination in violation of public policy, and therefore affirm the dismissal of those claims. However, the Court left open three Employer Safe Harbors for Marijuana Prohibitions as presenting possible undue hardships for an employer:.
But taking these steps now will reduce the risk of a successful employee challenge:. On August 16th,EBI and attorney Tommy Eden presented a brief explanation of what this means for your organization's policies, and gave listeners the opportunity to ask Tommy questions directly.
You can watch the recording for free here :. For More Information On August 16th,EBI and attorney Tommy Eden presented a brief explanation of what this means for your organization's policies, and gave listeners the opportunity to ask Tommy questions directly.There are two experimental sessions within the project. The first experimental session will occur at a training site and may last up to three hours in duration.
In this session, the participant will first take the initial pre-test for the written and video tests. Next, they will go through the stimulus equivalence instructional SEI sequence via the match to sample software program. The SEI sequence includes baseline before trainingtraining, and testing sessions for all of the different relations.
Lastly, a post-test for the written and video tests will conclude the first experimental session. The second experimental session must take place at least two weeks after the first session. Based upon participant preference, the session can occur at the training site or via an online meeting. In the second session, the participant will engage in an additional match to sample test sessions as well as an additional written and video test. This session will conclude participation in this project.
Stimulus equivalence instructional sequence SEI : an instructional sequence in which some relations are directly instructed while others are only tested without instruction to determine if the participant can learn novel relations without being directly taught.
For example, if I teach a participant that term A matches definition B and that term A also matches video scenario C, then I can test if the participant can match definition B to video scenario C without the relation of these two items being directly taught. In these studies, concepts related to functions of behavior and single-subject designs were successfully taught to undergraduate and graduate ABA students. Individuals entering into the delivery of ABA-based interventions face a number of obstacles.
Besides learning intervention procedures, new staff must also learn basic ABA terminology in order to discuss client behaviors and treatment interventions with supervisors, caregivers, and other professionals. The use of precise terms to describe behavior and environmental relations is one of the core components of behavior analysis Hineline, The development of training programs proven to be effective and efficient in teaching this terminology would greatly benefit staff who are new to the field.Ishqbaaz october 2017
Additionally, while supervising new staff out in the field, these training programs would allow BCBAs to concentrate on teaching behavioral interventions instead of having to review basic terminology. In doing so, this could potentially lead to greater fidelity of treatment interventions and better client outcomes.
Albright, L. Schnell, L. Using stimulus equivalence-based instruction to teach graduate students applied behavior analysis to interpret operant functions of behavior. Journal of Behavioral Education, 25 Brodsky, J. Perspectives on Behavior Science41Figure S2. Figure S3. Figure S4. Figure S5. Figure S6.
As sessile organisms, plants must adapt to variations in the environment. Environmental stress triggers various responses, including growth inhibition, mediated by the plant hormone abscisic acid ABA.
The mechanisms that integrate stress responses with growth are poorly understood. Plants utilize this conserved phospho-regulatory feedback mechanism to optimize the balance of growth and stress responses.
Wang et al. Upon sensing environmental stresses, plants sacrifice growth and activate protective stress responses. The phytohormone abscisic acid ABA plays a critical role in integrating a wide range of stress signals and controlling downstream stress responses Antoni et al.Kelsey white model
ABA reduces transpiration and photosynthesis Munemasa et al. PP2C inhibition releases sucrose non-fermenting-1 SNF1 related protein kinase-2s SnRK2swhich phosphorylate downstream effectors to initiate protective responses such as stomatal closure and gene expression reprogramming Geiger et al. ABA also has important roles in regulating plant growth and development Cutler et al.
ABA promotes seeds dormancy and inhibits growth of young seedlings by reducing polar auxin transport Shkolnik-Inbar and Bar-Zvi,or by affecting the expression of auxin responsive genes Liu et al. ABA signaling also cross-talks with brassinosteroid signaling in controlling seed germination Hu and Yu, ; Zhang et al.
Under stress conditions, ABA signaling interacts with gibberellin and auxin signaling pathways, and controls lateral root development De Smet et al. ABA also promotes the senescence and abscission in adult plants by inducing ethylene biosynthesis and by ethylene-independent mechanisms Liu et al. There are 14 members in the PYL family in Arabidopsis.
Plant growth is inhibited under stress to maximize stress responses and ensure survival. Upon cessation of environmental stress, plants must quickly deactivate protective stress responses and stimulate growth recovery mechanisms.
How plants switch between growth processes and stress responses is a long-standing and major question in plant biology Achard et al. Although the mechanism underlying this switch is still unclear, it is known to involve the intricate regulation of key factors for growth control. Target of Rapamycin TOR is an evolutionarily conserved master regulator that integrates energy, growth, hormone and stress signaling to promote growth in all eukaryotes Dobrenel et al.
In plants, the TOR complex has essential roles in regulating cell proliferation, cell size, development, protein synthesis, transcription and metabolism Bogre et al.
TOR controls translational initiation by phosphorylating the translation initiation factor elF3h and 40S ribosomal protein S6 kinases S6Ks Mahfouz et al. The activation of both the root and shoot meristems requires TOR kinase Li et al.
In the root meristem, TOR phosphorylates the E2Fa transcription factor to regulate the expression of genes involved in metabolism, cell cycle, transcription, signaling, transport and protein folding Xiong et al.
TOR also mediates the crosstalk between sugar signaling and brassinosteroid BR signaling by regulating the stability of BR signaling key transcription factor BZR1, thus allowing carbon availability to control growth-promotion hormonal programs to ensure supply-demand balance in plant growth Zhang et al.A goal of all instruction is to efficiently allocate time spent teaching -- balancing redundancy that enhances learning with redundancy that is irrelevant to increasing student understanding.
Efficient allocation of time allows the instructor to present additional material and go into more detail about the information being presented. Here we borrow laboratory research on concept formation and apply these formal principles in teaching introductory neuroanatomy within a lecture course on Behavioral Neuroscience.
Concept formation is taught by pairing multiple stimuli, for instance brain name, location, and function, in such a way that novel associations within a category emerge without direct training. This study demonstrates that careful selection of associations by the instructor can encourage the spontaneous emergence of novel associations within a concept or category, thereby increasing efficiency of teaching and by extension, the depth of material that can be taught. Learning neuroanatomy often consists of associating various characteristics of brain structures such as the name of the region; the location of the brain region using a diagram, model, or tissue; and the functions associated with that brain region.
Various characteristics of a single element can be conceptualized as a stimulus class, or concept; and associations among stimuli within a class can be taught using equivalence-based instruction EBI. EBI involves teaching how physically disparate stimuli e. This paradigm uses specific language to categorize relations. After teaching that A goes with B, relating B back to A is called symmetry. After learning two relations, like A goes with B and B goes with C, relating the A to C stimulus is called transitivity, and relating C back to A is called equivalence.
The paradigm has previously been verified under tightly controlled conditions, in which instruction is provided via computer, for algebraic and trigonometry concepts Ninness et al. EBI has also been applied to teaching brain anatomy concepts. In a laboratory study, Fienup et al.How Kuami Eugene Proposed Love to Adina on Stage at FADAMA BOY CONCERT
Participants were first taught to choose two different functions in the presence of lobe names. Participants were then taught to choose a picture of the location and a statement about the behavioral outcome of damage to this region in the presence of the lobe names. Teaching these 16 relations resulted in an additional 64 spontaneous untaught relations a total of Participants were able to interchange all of the stimuli in novel ways not formally taught.
This research highlights the efficiency of teaching that can result from carefully planning what is necessary to teach and what is likely to emerge without direct training. Teaching overlapping relations e. Whereas laboratory research demonstrates the efficacy of this teaching strategy, the transportability of EBI to natural instructional settings has not yet been fully established.
There are two examples of this research that were conducted with students enrolled in a course, learning course-related content Critchfield and Fienup, ; Fienup and Critchfield, ; however, besides participant selection, these studies were essentially laboratory studies that took place in highly controlled environments, limited in distraction, and not in the context of the normal demands, stressors, and motivators that are part of an academic course Rehfeldt, In other words, while these studies demonstrate that EBI can enhance efficiency in achieving complex concepts, it does not demonstrate that comparable outcomes will occur when embedded in the ongoing lecture practices of a college course.
In fact, it is not always the case that successful interventions maintain effects when applied under more naturalistic conditions Schoenwald and Hoagwood, We focused on the following basic neuroanatomical information: recognition of the location of a brain region on a diagram Athe name of the region Band the function of the region C. First, we asked whether there was a difference in outcome of a multiple choice test when the question provided the region name B and the students were required to identify the function C as opposed to when the question provided the function C and the student was required to identify the region name B.
The last research question specifically assessed teaching efficiency: Whether an instructor should teach all relations or whether some relations can be expected to emerge without direct training. Prior to the study, fourteen brain regions were identified for which location on a diagram term Aname term Band function term C were regularly taught and tested within the course Table 1. Stimuli are presented from top to bottom in the order in which they appeared on the exam.
On the exam, all of the directly-taught relations were assessed as well as two relations that, based on an EBI paradigm, should emerge in the absence of direct training. Ninety-three undergraduates were enrolled in a semester-long, introductory level Behavioral Neuroscience course that met once per week for a 3-hour lecture.Just yesterday, she shared to the world in Reaction to the worldwar3 trend that she wishes to change her nationality to Nigeria after coming for some days and enjoying her stay.
See photo. DavidEsq : Why is no one seeing through the Photoshop we are all just playing along since it isnt derogatory. AKA Cardi B on fleek! She's looking so lovely, pretty and Beautiful. Who can tell us the name of the style of her 'gele' biko?! Yewande will like to give it a try! Yungin learned a new word from me today I see. Always respect the OGswe built the legacy you feed off Cheers.Nonton tv series gratis
Your Hypocrite of a member is back to constitute nuisance all over nairaland once more. The mods will have his time once again. Always respect the OGswe built the legacy you feed off Cheers sharing your own comment chaaai!! SMH for you. SMH for you Listen yungin don't be like Freda bitter forty something year old wearing buhari t-shirts on Facebook. That's the definition of sad. Be humble, never bite the finger that feeds you. Appreciate an OG when you meet one and they may let you eat.
Show respect always. All rights reserved. See How To Advertise.News Weddings. News Scoop. Features News. By the way, our page BellaNaijaWeddings is almost 12k strong — yay!
Thank you — now sit back and enjoy!
Silver gele, brown skirt and blouse — niyolapee. She designed it herself! Aww — the little ones! With the lovely bride in red! Igbo Kwenu! Tops by SidiBespoke — pic by GeorgeOkoro. See you in two weeks! We love weddings as much as you do — get in touch!
The body on the girl in the 2nd pic is fabuloso. Not a fan of aso-ebi or traditional wears but a few on this list are quite nice. So luvly.
I fink am gonna stop buyin aso-ebi n cme wif ma own well designd n tailored outfit.Octave mandolin comparison
Thanks dear, the yellow and silver outfit was a joint conclusion btw my sisters and i although it took us so long to finalize.
I must say,Nigerians have an amazing taste in fashion,do check our fashion books at booksfromus. I recommend Onyinye from the photos above, see babe wey get enuff talent! And something tells me she dey this UK. BN, oya provide contact details biko. This her selling point na good market because I wan become her customer …. BellaNaija Weddings.
Onyinye designed her fab aso-ebi but it was tailored by kachidesigns on Instagram — based in Houston, Texas. Lol ure not well at your pencil skirt wearing self! Sighs… as me I know get nkiru or ikebe…e dey pain me shaa. I just have fine tall legs…na that one I use thank baba God. For serious, though… only this week, one kain oyibo van driver started tooting his horn and smiling at me as I bin dey waka cross road, I nearly thought I was back on Aba Road in Port Harcourt.
Great pictures. I guess the Naija contingent on Instagram is about increase….
Great style by Onyinye!! Gorgeousness personified! Thanks for featuring me, Bella Naija. I am honored. Our culture is rich in style, creativity, and history.
Ndi Igbo, kwenu! Nice idea BN….
I miss that.Remember Any? Ebenezer obey : eniyan ti mo feran ju iya mi baba mi ati iyawo mi omo mi, egbon mi ataburo mi ebi mi tun shey pataki won shey koko ore, ara, ataladugbo ati pe bi Jesu oluwa ti wipe fe enikeji re datz wia he sang o se o Jesu a o ma yino o se o jesu olorun ayo wa o se o jesu, etc a o le shubu rara rara a o le shubu fehinti fehinti jesu ni mo fehinti jesu ni mo fehinti mi o le shubu.
I once listened to them and i still have some of them but not the lyrics. Aiyele Dance Video Love the song, too bad Rameywhathisface is featured prominently in it. I once listened to them and i still have some of them but not the lyrics Lmao! It's from a members only forum and you have to be a girl. Oh alright, I guess I can give you the password. Sisi Jinx: Lmao! Aimasiko - ebenezer obey aimasiko lo n damu eda ooo oro mi lowo oluwa lo wa eni rowo he loju ala to n dunu eni ko tepa mo'se nitori ebi oro mi lowo oluwa lo wa aimasiko lo n damu eda ooo, etc.
Hey, I'm loving this thread. Does anybody hav a youtube link to a song titled love song by Synergy.
Using Equivalence-Based Instruction to Increase Efficiency in Teaching Neuroanatomy
I think stella damasus and her husband were in the video. Ekiti Style: me a le o hmmm 2x bi me le o l'omode me ti a ni lagba ai le o l'omode ma i s'ole aiye ni mo mon be o o me a ko le o hmmm 2X bi me k'ole l'omode me ti a ko lagba ai k'ole l'omode ma i s'ole aiye ni mo b'ile o. Mo ti ba afefe wi Ko ma se gb'ebode mo mi Mo ti ba ile soro o, ko ma se gba'bode mo mi ile gbo oro olorun ile gbo oro olorun. Mukulu muke maaa jo Fun olorun mi O te mi lorun kin jo Fun olorun miiiiii Mukulu mu ke maaaaaaaaa jo Fun olorun miii O mukulu, ye o mu keo mukulu, O muke, o mu haha.
Baba ni kin ma f'ayo j'aye ori mi Baba ni kin ma fi ayo je aye ori mi Oun lo ran mi ni ise, kin se eniyan Baba to ran mi ni ise O wa leyin mi Baba ni kin ma fi ayo je aye ori mi. Baba o se o ku itoju mi Jesu o se o ku itoju mi Iba ma se pe mo ni jesu ni baba 2ce Ogun aye iba bori mi.
Mo ti mona iye yi na Rara ko ma le yi pada Jesu lona iye na To lo sile Ogo. Mo fiyin fun oba to mo ibere mi mo fiyin fun oba to nse iwosan mi alfa omega oba tope ye o ologo atolola mo fiyin fun. Aiye nreti eleya mi o Won nreti eleya mi o lojojumo Won ti ko ra won jo o lati petan me Won ni mi o mo ju ile adura ojojumo Bon ri mi lono ile adura won ama segan mi Won a lo ti tuuun lo Wan tun ma wi Baba adura rora mia gbese Emi lon bawi yen o olorun mi Dakun wa gbe mi nija.
Eran ti ku si mushin o Eran ti ku si mushin eheeeee Eran ti ku si mushin Alhaji o, Alhaja Elo data pada ko seran mo Elo ra tinko ke wa fi mu garri o Eran ti ku si mushin ehen Eran ti ku si mushin. All rights reserved. See How To Advertise.
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